A new study by Peters et al. (2011) suggests that outsourcing of emissions by developed countries to developing countries (e.g., outsourced manufacturing) is significantly larger than emissions reductions in developed countries.
Our results indicate that international trade is a signiﬁcant factor in explaining the change in emissions in many countries, from both a production and consumption perspective. We suggest that countries monitor emission transfers via international trade, in addition to territorial emissions, to ensure progress toward stabilization of global greenhouse gas emissions.
Another strategy, which I use in my study of adoption of systems for managing carbon emissions, is to examine emissions of multinational global corporations, thereby eliminating some of the accounting error.